Our References

Here is an extensive list of the references that were  used for the study in 2012 and in 2016-2017. The list is being constantly updated.

We have also compiled a list of what Professor Long believes are seminal articles on Fluency. Click the button below to access them.

Fluency Articles

Fluency in General

Measuring Spoken Language: A Unit for All Reasons. Pauline Foster, Alan Tonkyn, Gillian Wigglesworth. Applied Linguistics 21, (3), 354-375. 2000

Enduring Without Avoiding: Pauses and Verbal Dysfluencies in Public Speaking Fear. Michael Lewin, Daniel McNeil, Jonathon Lipson. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, Vol 18, (4), 387-402. 1996.

Pausology and Hesitation Phenomena in Second Language Acquisition. Michiko Watanabe: Ralph Rose. Retrieved at:

Lennon, P. (1990). Investigating fluency in EFL: A quantitative approach. Language Learning, 40, 387-417.

Housen, A & Kuiken, F. (2009). Complexity, accuracy, and fluency in second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 30, 461-473.

West C. & D. Zimmerman. 1987. Doing Gender. Gender in Society, 1, 125-51.

Griffiths, R. 1991. Pausological research in an L2 context: a rationale, and review of selected studies. Applied Linguistics, 12 (4), 345-364.


Gendered Fluency

Fishman, P. (1978). What do couples talk about when they’re alone? In D. Butturf & E. Epstein (Eds.), Women’s language and style. (pp. 397-406). Department of English, University of Akron.

Coates, J. (1996). Gender, Language and Discourse: A Review Essay. Signs 23(4): 945-73.

Crawford, M. (1995). Talking Difference: On Gender and Language. London: Sage Publications.

Stokoe, E.H. (1998). Talking about Gender: The Conversational Construction of Gender Categories in Academic Discourse. Discourse & Society 9,(2): 217-40.

Tannen, D. (1990). You just don’t understand: women and men in conversation. New York: Ballantine.

West, C., & Zimmerman, D. (1987). Doing Gender, Gender & Society, 1(2), 125-151.

Zimmerman, D. & West, C. (1975). Sex roles, interruptions and silences in Conversation. In Thorne, B. and Henley, N. (Eds.), Language and   sex: Difference and dominance. (pp. 105-29). Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.

Coates, J. (1996). Women Talk: Conversation between Women Friends. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Crawford, M. & Roger, C. (1987). Effects of gender and topic on speech style. Journal of psycholinguistic research, 16, (1), 83-89.

Freeman, R. D. & McElhinny, B. (1996). “Language and Gender”. In S. Mckay & N.  Hornberger (eds.), Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching, pp. 218- 280. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sayers, F. (1984, June). Interaction involvement, gender role, and selected conversational behaviors. Paper presented at the National Women’s Studies Association, Douglass College, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Wood, M. (1966). The influence of sex and knowledge of communication effectiveness on spontaneous speech. Word, 22, 112-137.


Active v. Passive Skills

Correlations between active skill and passive skill test scores. Michihiro Hirai. Shiken: JALT Testing and Evaluation SIG Newsletter, 6 (3). September 2002. 2-8.

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