Robert W. Long

Lead Researcher and Writer
Robert Long is a 25 year veteran in teaching ESL and EFL. and is currently an Associate Professor at Kyushu Institute of Technology. On top of authoring several EFL textbooks, his research focuses on fluency with examining participants’ responses in interview settings and noting pauses and dysfluency. Professor Long believes that conversation is the bridge to better relationships and opportunities. More about Robert Long


José Domingo Cruz

Web Presentation
José Domingo Cruz is Chief Creator for several English study projects, including his newest venture, “GoldFish”. José is from Canada, a long-term Japan resident and a veteran university instructor.


Yamashita Haruka

Transcription Chief
Yamashita Haruka is a undergraduate student in Fukuoka. In 2016 she began a one-year exchange program at a university in Pennsylvania, USA.

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Ryotaro and Toko

Ryotaro is now talking with Toko, and in this discussion is they are discussing their favorite person. As both are in space technology, the two hit it off and the discourse is animated. Again, Toko produces far more words than her male counterpart, with 473 compared to Ryotaro’s 374, so this is rather refreshing to see. Acoustic dysfluency is low, 1.0% percent silence for overall discussion, and cross-talking pausing is non-existent. Lexical dysfluency is low, but in syntactic dysfluency, there is a high level of repetition, 42, for Ryotaro and 59 for Toko, likewise there is also a high level of meaningless syllables. MLRs are average. Minimal responses were low, and this was good to see.

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Ryotaro and Kaho

Ryotaro is now meeting Kaho and while cross-talk pausing is noted (16.5 seconds) Kaho seems far more comfortable talking with Ryotaro, though the overall amount of silence for the entire interaction is still high, 57.5 second, or 7.1%.  Speaking rate is average for Ryotaro, but is quite low for Kaho, 50.4. Lexical dysfluency is low though some L1 is used. As for syntactic dysfluency, Ryotaro has high MLRs (14.9) but Kaho’s are average, 10.7. Again, we see, in regard to production, the males producing a far high number of words, Ryotaro’s 413 to Kaho’s 279. Meaningless syllables are slightly high. In short, both participants were more relaxed but had to think through their answers regarding their most important things in life.

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Toko and Takumi

Takumi is now talking with Toko in his second gendered discussion. This one is quite different from his interaction with Kaho. The discussion is very animated and Toko is thoroughly engaged and interested, particularly when discussing music. This also is one of the few interactions that shows the female actually having more production, with Toko having 598 words compared to Takumi’s 374. Acoustic dysfluency is minimal, very little silence noted (0.3% for overall discussion!), and with lexical dysfluency only the moderate use of L1 is noted. For syntactic dysfluency, there is a high level of repetition for both participants, 45 for Toko and 59 for Takumi, and MLRs are average 12.8 for Toko but Takumi’s is rather on the low side, 8.4.

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